MEANINGOF COMPUTER

MEANING OF COMPUTER

MEANING OF COMPUTER: Computer is an electronic device that can accept data, can process data, can store data and give out information (Result) under a certain instruction.

Another meaning of computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send email, play games, and browse the Web.

MEANINGOF COMPUTER

So, in simple words you can say that meaning of computer is an electronic device which is used for fast calculation. Some people say that COMPUTER stands for Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research.

In our above explanation of meaning of computer, we defined computer as an electronic device because without electricity we cannot use computer (Computer can’t work) since it won’t switch on.

 

  • Machine is anything that can be used to simplify work for example chair, table, scissors, Inclined Plane, Wedge, Lever, Hand Truck etc.
  • So also, we can say meaning of computer is machine because it can simplify work for example in a certain school there are 200 form four students and teacher want to give them computer examination instead of him/her to write examination to every student he/she will type only one examination then he/she will print 200 copies.
  • In explanation of meaning of computer  we said Computer is machine but not every machine is computer because for computer to work it need electricity but there are machine which does not need electricity to work for example chair, Table, bicycle etc.

USES OF COMPUTER

  • Computers are used at homes for several purposes like online bill payment, watching movies or shows at home, home tutoring, social media access, playing games, internet access, etc.
  • Medical Field.
  • Entertainment
  • Education

 

In our topic of meaning of computer e can say computer is made up of two mainly  components that facilitate user functionality.

As we saw meaning of computer, computer has two main components:

  • Hardware components
  • Software components

HARDWARE COMPONENTS

These are tangible physical parts of the computer as part in Meaning of Computer. for examples processor, memory, storage media, keyboard, power supply, communication ports and peripheral devices. Each of these components (called devices) have a different purpose, which may be either accepting inputs, processing data, storing data or sending outputs.

For example, a mouse, keyboard, scanner and a microphone are input devices used to record user activities and transform them into data that is transmitted to the system unit. A hard disk is a storage media where data is stored and accessed by other devices.

A monitor, printer and speaker are output devices that transform processed data into (respectively) video and audio signals

PROCESSOR (CPU)

The component that processes and executes inputs received from hardware and software. Central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of computer. The major types of CPU are classified as single-core, dual-core, Quad-core, Hexa core, Octa-core, and Deca core processor

CPU divided into three parts.

  1. Arithmetic logical Unit (ALU)

An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. It represents the fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. Modern CPUs contain very powerful and complex ALUs.

  1. Control Unit (CU)

The control unit of the central processing unit regulates and integrates the operations of the computer. It selects and retrieves instructions from the main memory in proper sequence and interprets them so as to activate the other functional elements of the system at the appropriate moment.

  1. Register

A register is basically a storage space for units of memory that are used to transfer data for immediate use by the CPU (Central Processing Unit) for data processing. Also known as memory registers, they can actually form part of the computer processor as a processor register. Store un processed Data.

 

MOTHERBOARD

A mainboard that provides basic connection between all the other computer hardware components and devices (internal and external devices). sometimes motherboard is known as Printed Circuit Board (PCB) made up with alloy Materials

MEMORY (RAM)

Random Access Memory (RAM) is a temporary data storage space that stores the information the CPU is actively using. Sometimes RAM is known as Primary Storage Media since it stores data temporary or volatile Memory.

PERMANENT STORAGE DEVICES

A storage device where data is stored on a permanent basis. It’s slower but less volatile than the RAM.forexample Hard Drive Disk (HDD), Flash Disk, External Memory and Solid-State Drive (SSD) which is a new generation of storage device used in computers. SSDs use flash-based memory, which is much faster than a traditional mechanical hard disk. Upgrading to an SSD is one of the best ways to speed up your computer.

POWER SUPPLY UNIT

This is physical part of computer used to supply power into various parts of the computer since in order for the computer to work it need power. Most power supplies will take power from AC mains and convert it into a usable DC for use in electronic devices. During this process, a power supply is filling a number of roles, including: Transforming AC from a mains supply into a steady DC. Preventing any AC from interfering with a DC supply output.

SOFTWARE COMPONETS AS USED IN MEANING OF COMPUTER

Software is a set of instructions or commands; data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks. Software is Intangible part of the computer. It is the opposite of hardware, which describes the physical aspects of a computer. Software is a generic term used to refer to applications, scripts and programs that run on a device. It can be thought of as the variable part of a computer, while hardware is the invariable part.

The two main categories of software are application software and system software. An application is software that fulfills a specific need or performs user tasks and give computer user interface. System software is designed to run a computer’s hardware and provides a platform for applications to run on top of. System software manage all computer resources.

Other types of software include programming software, which provides the programming tools software developers need; middleware, which sits between system software and applications; and driver software, which operates computer devices and peripherals.

EXAMPLES AND TYPES OF SOFTWARE

Among the various categories of software, the most common types include the following:

  • Application software. The most common type of software, application software is a computer software package that performs a specific function for a computer user, or in some cases, for another application. An application can be self-contained, or it can be a group of programs that run the application for the user. Examples of modern application include media players such VLC, office suites, graphics software, databases and database management programs, web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, google crome,opera min,internet explorer, word processors such as Microsoft word, software development tools, image editors and communication platforms.
  • System software.These software programs are designed to run a computer’s application programs and hardware. System software coordinates the activities and functions of the hardware and software. In addition, it controls the operations of the computer hardware and provides an environment or platform for all the other types of software to work in. The Operating System (OS) is the best example of system software; it manages all the other computer programs. Other examples of system software include the firmware, computer language translators and system utilities. Examples of operating system are ubuntu,linux mint,Microsoft Windows(Windows XP,Windows Vista,Windows 7,Windows 8,Windows 10),Kubuntu,Iphone Operating System(IOs),Mackbook Operating System(MACos).
  • Driver software. Also known as device drivers, this software is often considered a type of system software. Device drivers control the devices and peripherals connected to a computer, enabling them to perform their specific tasks. Every device that is connected to a computer needs at least one device driver to function. Examples include software that comes with any nonstandard hardware, including special game controllers, as well as the software that enables standard hardware, such as USB storage devices, keyboards, headphones and printers.
  • The term middleware describes software that mediates between application and system software or between two different kinds of application software. For example, middleware enables Microsoft Windows to talk to Excel and Word. It is also used to send a remote work request from an application in a computer that has one kind of OS, to an application in a computer with a different OS. It also enables newer applications to work with legacy ones.
  • Programming software. Computer programmers use programming software to write code. Programming software and programming tools enable developers to develop, write, test and debug other software programs. Examples of programming software include assemblers, compilers, debuggers and interpreters.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE COMPUTER IN MEANING OF COMPUTER

As we so in Meaning of computer, Computers differ based on their data processing abilities. They are classified according to purpose, data handling and functionality.

According to purpose, computers are either general purpose or specific purpose. General purpose computers are designed to perform a range of tasks. They have the ability to store numerous programs, but lack in speed and efficiency. Specific purpose computers are designed to handle a specific problem or to perform a specific task. A set of instructions is built into the machine.

According to data handling, computers are analog, digital or hybrid. Analog computers work on the principle of measuring, in which the measurements obtained are translated into data. Modern analog computers usually employ electrical parameters, such as voltages, resistances or currents, to represent the quantities being manipulated. Such computers do not deal directly with the numbers. They measure continuous physical magnitudes. Digital computers are those that operate with information, numerical or otherwise, represented in a digital form. Such computers process data into a digital value (in 0s and 1s). They give the results with more accuracy and at a faster rate. Hybrid computers incorporate the measuring feature of an analog computer and counting feature of a digital computer. For computational purposes, these computers use analog components and for storage, digital memories are used.

 

ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONALITY, TYPE OF COMPUTERS ARE CLASSIFIED AS:

Analog Computer

An analog computer is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

Digital Computer

A Computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system.

Hybrid Computer (Analog + Digital)

A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost-effective method of performing complex simulations.

 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER ACCORDING TO THE SIZE

Super Computer

The fastest and most powerful type of computer Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a super computer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration.

The chief difference between a super computer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently.

Mainframe Computer

A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe.

meaning of Computer we have Mini Computer as type of Computer

A mid-sized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a mini computer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously.

In meaning of Computer we have Micro Computer or Personal Computer

  • Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on a desk.
  • Laptop Computer: a portable computer completes with an integrated screen and keyboard. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a notebook computer.
  • Palmtop Computer/Digital Diary /Notebook /PDAs: a hand-sized computer. Palmtops have no keyboard but the screen serves both as an input and output device.

meaning of Computer  we  have Workstations

A terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, workstation is just a generic term for a user’s machine (client machine) in contrast to a “server” or “mainframe.”