WHAT IS COMPUTER TROUBLESHOOTING: Computer maintenance refers to the physical processes of upkeep of the computer peripherals. Maintenance activities like regular brushing, dusting, vacuum cleaning etc. are the important and mostly ignored preventive measures.WHAT IS COMPUTER TROUBLESHOOTING

WHAT IS COMPUTER TROUBLESHOOTING,Regular maintenance generally takes care of most of the problems especially those of data loss or corruption. So, it should be given due importance.



This is performed even if the computer is still operating at its efficient level. It is done to prevent degradation of performance.


This type of maintenance is required when a system or subsystem finally collapse.


This involves a regular schedule or time table strictly adhered to by the owner of the computers and the party offering the maintenance service to perform an overhaul of machinery.

A computer system is a modular system-made up of several modular parts or components. These modular parts or discrete components work together to form a functional whole. Each component has one or more specific relationships to other components in the system and each component has one or more expected behaviors. Notable among these components are: the monitor, keyboard, mouse, hard disk drive, memory and CD- Rom drive. Therefore, the main challenge of computer maintenance is understanding the techniques of troubleshooting.


Computer Troubleshooting is a systematic process used to locate the cause of a problem or fault in a computer system and correct the relevant computer hardware and computer software issues. Approaching problem solving using a logical and methodical approach is essential to successful resolution. Although experience is very useful to problem solving, following a troubleshooting model will enhance effectiveness and speed.

The troubleshooting process steps or procedures are as follows

  1. Identify the problem.
  2. Establish a theory of probable cause.
  3. Test the theory to determine the cause.
  4. Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and implement the solution.
  5. Verify full system functionality and, if applicable, implement preventive measures
  6. Document findings, actions, and outcomes.

Computer repair is the process of identifying, troubleshooting and resolving problems and issues in a faulty computer. Computer repair is a broad field encompassing many tools, techniques and procedures used to repair computer hardware, software or network/Internet problems. Computer repair is also known as PC repair.

Computer repair is handled by a specialized computer repair technician. Typically, a hardware fault requires the physical review of a computer and testing for abnormalities. Suspected components, such as random-access memory (RAM), hard disk, power supply or optical drive may be individually checked, troubleshooted or replaced if an error is detected. This usually requires special equipment and accessories to disassemble and reassemble the computer.

Software-based computer repair issues are generally related to operating system (OS) configuration or updates, installed applications, viruses and other software services. Similarly, computer repair for network/Internet issues allows a computer to completely utilize available and network services.

Before you begin troubleshooting problems, always follow the necessary precautions to protect data on a computer. Some repairs, such as replacing a hard drive or reinstalling an operating system, might put the data on the computer at risk. Make sure you do everything possible to prevent data loss while attempting repairs. If your work results in data loss for the customer, you or your company could be held liable.

In view of this, proper knowledge and understanding of the behavior of each of the components that made up a computer system is necessary. Trouble shooting methods are all about SWAPPING and ELIMINATING.


A data backup is a copy of the data on a computer hard drive that is saved to another storage device or to cloud storage. Cloud storage is online storage that is accessed via the Internet. In an organization, backups may be performed on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis.

If you are unsure about whether a backup has been done, do not attempt any troubleshooting activities until you check with the customer. Here is a list of items to verify with the customer regarding whether a backup has been performed:

  • Date of the last backup
  • Contents of the backup
  • Data integrity of the backup
  • Availability of all backup media for a data restore

If the customer does not have a current backup and you are not able to create one, ask the customer to sign a liability release form. A liability release form contains at least the following information:


  • Permission to work on the computer without having a current backup available
  • Release from liability if data is lost or corrupted
  • Description of the work to be performed


Here we PCteki will explain both hardware and software components of the computer.


This is a television-like computer hardware device which displays the activities of a computer per time.

PROBLEM 1: Monitor not coming on

SOLUTION: Check the power source and the power cable

PROBLEM 2: Monitor is on, but not display


  • Check the data cable if well connected
  • Check the brightness and the contrast buttons if they are set zero.



This is a typewriter-like device which is used for sending signals into the computer as input.

 PROBLEM 1: Keyboard not responding

SOLUTION: Check the cable if properly connected

PROBLEM 2: Keyboard beeping continuously

SOLUTION: Check if no key is hooked

PROBLEM 3: A key or keys hooking always

SOLUTION: Replace the keyboard

  1. MOUSE

This is a hand-held pointing device used for executing commands on the computer.

PROBLEM: Mouse not responding


  1. Check the cable if properly connected
  2. The computer should be restarted
  • The mouse should be clean if it is a ball-bearing type.



This is a permanent storage device found on a computer. It is very fragile.

PROBLEM 1: Strange noise when being accessed

SOLUTION: Back up data and replace the hard disk

PROBLEM 2: Insufficient disk space

SOLUTION: Delete some files or uninstall some programs

PROBLEM 3: No fixed disk found

SOLUTION: Check the data cable and the power connector



This is used for accessing data or information stored on compact disks or DVD disks

PROBLEM 1: Drive cannot be accessed

SOLUTION: Check the data cable and power connector

PROBLEM 2: Disks cannot be read

SOLOUTION: Lens is weak or dirty. Replace the drive or clean the lens. PROBLEM 3: Indicator LED is on constantly

SOLUTION: Correct the data cable orientation


The computer memory or RAM is the working storage of the computer. The higher the capacity, the better the performance of a computer.

PROBLEM 1: Computer is working but no display

SOLUTION: Check if the RAM is well-seated

PROBLEM 2: Computer not recognizing the RAM

SOLUTION: Check if the RAM is compatible

  1. Power supply:

Power problems are often caused by a faulty power supply, loose connections, and inadequate wattage. The computer reboots and turns off unexpectedly; or there is smoke or the smell of burning electronics is caused by the power supply is starting to fail and solution is replacing the power supply.

  1. Motherboard and internal components:

Motherboard and internal component problems are often caused by incorrect or loose cables, failed components, incorrect drivers, and corrupted updates.


PROBLEM: The clock on the computer is no longer keeping the correct time or the BIOS settings are changing when the computer is rebooted

CAUSES: The CMOS battery may be loose.

SOLUTION: Secure the battery.

CAUSES: The CMOS battery may be drained.

SOLUTION: Replace the battery


PROBLEM: The computer displays incorrect CPU information when the computer boots.

CAUSES 1: The CPU settings are not correct in the advanced BIOS settings.

SOLUTION: Set the advanced BIOS settings correctly for the CPU.

CAUSES 2: BIOS does not properly recognize the CPU.

SOLUTION: Update the BIOS.

CAUSES3: The hard drive LED cable is not connected or is loose.

SOLUTION: Reconnect the hard drive LED cable to the motherboard.


Computer problems are not only that of hardware malfunctioning. Software as well can make a computer to misbehave. This often arises from improper shut down or when a new software is added. To correct software problems most times, a system restore should be done or the newly installed software should be removed. If this does not solve the problem, the operating system could be reinstalled as the last resort.


Each BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) manufacturer has a unique beep sequence, a combination of long and short beeps, for hardware failures. When troubleshooting, power on the computer and listen. As the system proceeds through the POST (Power on Self-Test), most computers emit one beep to indicate that the system is booting properly. If there is an error, you might hear multiple beeps. Document the beep code sequence and research the code to determine the specific problem.


If the computer boots and stops after the POST, investigate the BIOS settings. A device might not be detected or configured properly. Refer to the motherboard documentation to ensure that the BIOS settings are correct.


The Device Manager displays all the devices that are configured on a computer. The operating system flags the devices that are not operating correctly with an error icon. A yellow triangle with an exclamation point indicates that the device is in a problem state. A red X means that the device is disabled or removed or that Windows can’t locate the device. A downward-pointing arrow means the device has been disabled. A yellow question mark indicates that the system does not know which driver to install for the hardware.

  1. Task Manager

The Task Manager displays the applications and background processes that are currently running. With the Task Manager, you can close applications that have stopped responding. You can also monitor the performance of the CPU and virtual memory, view all processes that are currently running, and view information about the network connections.



Booting a computer refers to the process of powering on the computer and starting the operating system. The operating system is the program that makes all your software applications and hardware work together, so you can do the work you want to do. Once you hit the power button, it’s all automatic from there. The boot process loads the operating system into main memory or the random-access memory (RAM) installed on your computer. Now let’s learn a little more about the boot process.

When you push the power button, power is sent to a small bootloader program, which loads the computer’s operating system. The bootloader is located in the cache memory. The cache memory is a portion of your RAM that is directly attached to the central processing unit (CPU), which is the brains of your computer.

Once the bootloader program gets power, it starts the process of activating the operating system. If you were to see this happening, it would show a black screen with the text of the boot up processes.

During the boot process, the first thing that happens is the POST or Power on Self-Test. When the POST is running, you will typically see lights flashing and hear a series of beeps. Basically, the computer is performing a test to make sure all the attached hardware is communicating clearly with the CPU.

Once the POST is complete, the BIOS, or Basic Input/Output System, is activated. The BIOS is actually stored in read only memory (ROM). So, the bootloader program opens or wakes up the BIOS, which then finds the complete loading instructions on a bootable device, typically the hard disk. BIOS is low-level system software that boots before your operating system when you start your computer. The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is the current solution to BIOS, as it has more advantages like booting quicker and increased security.


RAM, which stands for random access memory, and ROM, which stands for read-only memory, are both present in your computer. RAM is volatile memory that temporarily stores the files you are working on. ROM is non-volatile memory that permanently stores instructions for your computer.