PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY:-The processor is defined as a logic circuit or simple chip which reacts to fundamental instructions and input processes to operate the computer. The important purposes of a processor are getting, decoding, processing, executing and writing back as feedback to the instructions of the chip. The processor is termed as the brain of any electronic systems that incorporate into a laptop, computers, smartphones, and embedded systems. The control unit and arithmetic logic unit are the two significant components of the processors.

The logic functions can be addition, multiplication, subtraction and division whereas the control unit manages the traffic flow which follows the operation or command according to the input instruction. This processor interacts with the neighboring component which can be their output, input, storage and memory components.

Processor Technology Corporation was a personal computer company founded in April 1975 by Gary Ingram and Bob Marsh in Berkeley, California. Their first product was a 4K byte RAM board that was compatible with the MITS Altair 8800 computer but more reliable than the MITS board.

Different Types of Processors

The different types of processors are microprocessor, microcontroller, embedded processor, digital signal processor and the processors can be varied according to the devices. The important elements of the CPU are labelled as heart elements of the processor and system. The control unit activates, fetches, and execute the input instructions. The processor can be embedded in a microprocessor and comprise of unit IC chip. But some devices are based on multi-core processors. It comprises one or more CPU. It is a typical tiny component with pins embedded on the motherboard. It can also be linked to motherboard with fan and heat sink to disperse the produced heat.

1. Microprocessor

The fundamental process of the system is denoted by a microprocessor incorporated in the embedded systems. There are various types of microprocessors in the market implemented by different enterprises. The microprocessor is a standard processor which comprises of ALU, control unit and club of registers known as control registers, status registers, and scratchpad registers.

It can be on-chip memory and few interfaces can be interacting to the outer world via interrupting lines, and the other can be ports and memory registers to interact with the external world. These ports are often termed as programmable and make them act as output or input. These programs can be fed and modified according to the behavior of the devices.

A one or two microprocessor can be merged together to form a multiprocessor. The input and output operations and memory are shared by the processors. The access time in the memory register is similar for every processor and every processor are associated by bus. The working and access and their input and output functions are mutually shared by the processor to perform the same function.


The microcontroller is standard which is available in different size and packages. The input reading and reacting to its corresponding output is the fundamental function of the basic microcontroller and so it is called as general-purpose input and output processors (GPIO). Few of the microcontrollers are Microchip P1C16F877A, Microchip Atmega328, Microchip P1C18F45K22, Microchip P1C16F671, and Microchip P1C16F1503.

3. Embedded Processor

The embedded processor is structured to control the electrical and mechanical functions. It comprises of numerous blocks like timer, program memory, data memory, reset, power supply, data memory, interrupt controller, clock oscillator systems, interfacing circuits, specific circuits and system application ports and circuits.

4. Digital Signal Processor

The digital signal processor is used for filtering, measuring, compressing analogue and digital signals. The processing of signal means that manipulation and analysis of digital signals. This process can be made using application specified integration circuits, digital signal processor, field-programmable gate array or it can be a computer to achieve a distinct signal. The processors in DSP are used for barcode scanners, oscilloscope, printers, mobile phones. These processors are used for rapid and implied for real-time applications.

Components of Processor

  • The fundamental parts of the processor are control units, arithmetic logic unit, registers, floating points, L1 and L2 cache memory.
  • The arithmetic logic unit is comprised of logical and arithmetic functions on the operands in instructions.
  • The unit of floating-point is called as numeric coprocessor or math coprocessor. It is a specialized operator which manipulates the numbers in rapid when compared to the operation of basic microprocessor circuits.
  • The registers are used to save the instructions and other data to feed the operands to ALU and store the operation result. The L2 and L1 cache memory saves the time of CPU to fetch the data from RAM.
  • The primary functions are fetching, decode, write back and execute. The fetch is the function which gets the instruction from memory and feeds to RAM.
  • The decode is a process where the instructions can be edited to understand from the other elements of CPU is required to persist in the operation which is done by the instruction decoder. In the execute process, the CPU is required to trigger and carry out the functions.
  • Many processors in the market are multi-cored which comprises of multiple IC to enhance the performance of the processor, power consumption is limited, and gives a simultaneous process to perform parallel processing or multiple tasks.
  • The installation of multiple cores has separate processors as they are plugged into the one socket and gives a common established connection to make it faster.
  • In some computers, it has two or more cores and can be increased to twelve cores. If the CPU can process only with a set of finite commands at one time, and it is called a single-core processor. If the CPU obeys the two instructions at a time, then it is called a dual-core processor.
  • If it obeys four sets of commands then it’s called as quad-core processors. If there are more cores, the computer can obey multiple commands simultaneously.

Some of the processor manufacturer companies are Intel, AMD, Qualcomm, Motorola, Samsung, IBM, etc. The processors are small size chips made by silicon that are placed inside the devices to perform the task or operation within seconds and its speed is measured in terms of megahertz. The fetching, decoding, executing and write back the instructions are the four main primary functions of the processor. In mobile phones, laptops, computers, washing machines, etc. processors are used.