HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION:-Human–computer interaction is research in the design and the use of computer technology, which focuses on the interfaces between people and computers. HCI researchers observe the ways humans interact with computers and design technologies that allow humans to interact with computers in novel ways.

Human-computer interaction (HCI) is a design field that focuses on the interfaces between people and computers. HCI incorporates multiple disciplines, such as computer science, psychology, human factors, and ergonomics, into one field. Learn the principles of HCI to help you create intuitive and usable interfaces.

HCI (human-computer interaction) is the study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. A significant number of major corporations and academic institutions now study HCI.

Human computer interaction examples include: Interaction with a mobile app. Browsing a website from your desktop computer. Using internet of things (IoT) devices.

HCI is critical since it will be necessary for goods to be more successful, safe, helpful, and functional. It will make the user’s experience more enjoyable in the long term. As a result, having someone with HCI skills involved in all phases of any product or system development is critical.

A good interface should be designed to avoid errors as much as possible. However, if something goes wrong, your system should make it easy for users to understand and resolve the problem. Simple ways to deal with errors include displaying clear error notifications and descriptive hints to resolve the problem.

Advantages of human-computer interactions are that when an error occurs, humans can ask fast and responsively where the computer can go in an infinite loop and end up crashing. A disadvantage of the human-computer interaction is that you have to teach the user, what to do.

Even worse, technology that ignores the concepts and practices of positive human-computer interaction can contribute to a greater risk of human error in operation. Depending on what the work being performed is, even a relatively minor human error could have a serious impact on cost, safety and other important factors.

What is the reason for taking care of design a good computer human interference?

Good HCI design will encourage people to use one mobile app over another or to purchase a specific smartphone or tablet. It can also significantly improve business productivity levels.


What is consistency in UX?

“Consistency is one of the most powerful usability principles: when things always behave the same, users don’t have to worry about what will happen.” — Jakob Nielsen. Consistency is the key principle of UX design. A usable and user-friendly design always provides a consistent experience.

Donald Norman, one of the most notable researchers in the field of human-computer interaction and user-centered design, provides six key design principles to keep in mind while designing any interface. Norman’s idea is that devices, computers, and interfaces should function correctly and be intuitive and easy to use. The six principles that revolve around this idea are:


Users should know, just by looking at an interface, what their options are and how to access them. This is particularly important in mobile applications because it is a challenge to make everything visible within the limited screen space; hence, it is essential to include only the options that are needed. For example, a log-in screen only needs information about logging in or signing up, so cluttering it with other information would go against the visibility principle.


The user must receive feedback after every action they perform to let them know whether or not their action was successful. For example, changing the icon on the tab to a spinner to indicate that a webpage is loading.


Affordance is the link between how things look and how they’re used. For example, a coffee mug has high affordance because you instantly know how to hold it just by looking at it. The same is true for digital applications; the design should be intuitive enough that the users know how to access their desired information just by looking at the interface.


Mapping is the idea that, in a good design, the controls for something will closely resemble their effect. This is best understood with the vertical scroll bar; it tells you where you currently are, and the page moves down at the same pace and sensitivity as the vertical bar. A non-digital example is of a modern stovetop whose control knobs are arranged in the same order as the burners. This way, you will know exactly which knob operates which burner.


Constraints restrict a particular form of user interaction with an interface. This is essential because the user could become overwhelmed with the range of possibilities available through an interface. An example of a constraint is an online form that does not allow users to enter letters into a phone number field.


People learn new things and manage better when they recognize patterns. Consistency is key for these patterns to be recognized and learned by users. If similar-looking things do not produce a similar output, the user is bound to become frustrated. For example, if a website’s buttons are protruding boxes with labels on them, then all of the website’s buttons should look like that. Similarly, if a backward arrow denotes the back button, then it​ should not be changed to something else because that would be inconsistent with what the user has learned.

The human–computer interface can be described as the point of communication between the human user and the computer. The flow of information between the human and computer is defined as the loop of interaction. The loop of interaction has several aspects to it, including:

  • Visual Based: The visual-based human–computer interaction is probably the most widespread human–computer interaction (HCI) research area.
  • Audio Based: The audio-based interaction between a computer and a human is another important area of HCI systems. This area deals with information acquired by different audio signals.
  • Task environment: The conditions and goals set upon the user.
  • Machine environment: The computer’s environment is connected to, e.g., a laptop in a college student’s dorm room.
  • Areas of the interface: non-overlapping areas involve processes of the human and computer, not about their interaction. Meanwhile, the overlapping areas only concern themselves with the processes of their interaction.
  • Input flow: The flow of information begins in the task environment when the user has some tasks requiring using their computer.
  • Output: The flow of information that originates in the machine environment.
  • Feedback: Loops through the interface that evaluate, moderate, and confirm processes as they pass from the human through the interface to the computer and back.
  • Fit: This matches the computer design, the user, and the task to optimize the human resources needed to accomplish the task.


Human–computer interaction studies the ways in which humans make—or do not make—use of computational artifacts, systems, and infrastructures. Much of the research in this field seeks to improve the human–computer interaction by improving the usability of computer interfaces. How usability is to be precisely understood, how it relates to other social and cultural values, and when it is, and when it may not be a desirable property of computer interfaces is increasingly debated. Much of the research in the field of human–computer interaction takes an interest in:

  • Methods for designing new computer interfaces, thereby optimizing a design for a desired property such as learnability, findability, the efficiency of use.
  • Methods for implementing interfaces, e.g., by means of software libraries.
  • Methods for evaluating and comparing interfaces with respect to their usability and other desirable properties.
  • Methods for studying human–computer use and its sociocultural implications more broadly.
  • Methods for determining whether or not the user is human or computer.
  • Models and theories of human–computer use as well as conceptual frameworks for the design of computer interfaces, such as cognitivistuser models, Activity Theory, or ethnomethodological accounts of human–computer use.
  • Perspectives that critically reflect upon the values that underlie computational design, computer use, and HCI research practice.

Visions of what researchers in the field seek to achieve might vary. When pursuing a cognitivist perspective, researchers of HCI may seek to align computer interfaces with the mental model that humans have of their activities. When pursuing a post-cognitivist perspective, researchers of HCI may seek to align computer interfaces with existing social practices or existing sociocultural values.

Researchers in HCI are interested in developing design methodologies, experimenting with devices, prototyping software and hardware systems, exploring interaction paradigms, and developing models and theories of interaction.