EXAMPLES PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE:-A programming language is any set of rules that converts strings, or graphical program elements in the case of visual programming languages, to various kinds of machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.


A programming language is a notation designed to connect instructions to a machine or a computer. Programming languages are mainly used to control the performance of a machine or to express algorithms. At present, thousand programming languages have been implemented. In the computer field, many languages need to be stated in an imperative form, while other programming languages utilize declarative form. The program can be divided into two forms such as syntax and semantics. Some languages are defined by an SO standard like C language.

Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers. There are programmable machines that use a set of specific instructions, rather than general programming languages. Since the early 1800s, programs have been used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard loomsmusic boxes and player pianos.[1] The programs for these machines (such as a player piano’s scrolls) did not produce different behavior in response to different inputs or conditions.

Thousands of different programming languages have been created, and more are being created every year. Many programming languages are written in an imperative form (i.e., as a sequence of operations to perform) while other languages use the declarative form (i.e. the desired result is specified, not how to achieve it).

The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning), which are usually defined by a formal language. Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard) while other languages (such as Perl) have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference. Some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common.

Programming language theory is a subfield of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages.

The 4 types of Programming Language that are classified are:

Procedural Programming Language

The procedural programming language is used to execute a sequence of statements which lead to a result. Typically, this type of programming language uses multiple variables, heavy loops and other elements, which separates them from functional programming languages. Functions of procedural language may control variables, other than function’s value returns. For example, printing out information.

Functional Programming Language

Functional programming language typically uses stored data, frequently avoiding loops in favor of recursive functions. The functional programing’s primary focus is on the return values of functions, and side effects and different suggests that storing state are powerfully discouraged. For example, in an exceedingly pure useful language, if a function is termed, it’s expected that the function not modify or perform any o/p. It may, however, build algorithmic calls and alter the parameters of these calls. Functional languages are usually easier and build it easier to figure on abstract issues, however, they’ll even be “further from the machine” therein their programming model makes it difficult to know precisely, but the code is decoded into machine language (which are often problematic for system programming).

Object-oriented Programming Language

This programming language views the world as a group of objects that have internal data and external accessing parts of that data. The aim this programming language is to think about the fault by separating it into a collection of objects that offer services which can be used to solve a specific problem. One of the main principles of object-oriented programming language is encapsulation that everything an object will need must be inside of the object. This language also emphasizes reusability through inheritance and the capacity to spread current implementations without having to change a great deal of code by using polymorphism.

Scripting Programming Language

These programming languages are often procedural and may comprise object-oriented language elements, but they fall into their own category as they are normally not full-fledged programming languages with support for development of large systems. For example, they may not have compile-time type checking. Usually, these languages require tiny syntax to get started.

Logic Programming Language

These types of languages let programmers make declarative statements and then allow the machine to reason about the consequences of those statements. In a sense, this language doesn’t tell the computer how to do something, but employing restrictions on what it must consider doing.

To call these groups” types of language” is really a bit confusing. It’s easy to program in an object-oriented style in C language. In truth, most of the languages include ideas and features from various domains, which only helps to increase the usefulness of these types of languages. Nevertheless, most of the programming languages do not best in all styles of programming.

The Difference Between Different Programming Languages

From Java to Python, these language skills are in the highest demand for IT employers.

There are hundreds of programming languages out there, from the well-known to the ultra-obscure, and gaining fluency with one or more is a must if you want to make yourself a hot ticket for employers and score awesome coding jobs.

Sure, there are plenty of colleges and universities offering coding courses and degrees, along with tech bootcamps for those who want to learn outside of traditional university settings. But deciding where to specialize can be a daunting choice for beginning coders—as well as more experienced ones who want to stay on top of the latest trends in the IT world.

Fortunately, it doesn’t have to be. CyberCoders, one of the country’s leading IT recruiting firms, compiled data to determine the five most sought-after coding language skills for job seekers.

1.     Java

Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use, so it’s no surprise it came in as the No. 1 skill tech companies were looking for. According to Oracle, 3 billion mobile phones run Java, along with 125 million TV devices and 89% of desktop computers in the U.S. Java is everywhere and the demand for strong developers is high.

A Java developer makes a median salary of $85,000. There are many job postings for Java developers and Java engineers, but if you want to be a software developer or engineer of any kind, knowing this coding language is typically a core requirement.

2.     SQL

Pronounced “sequel,” SQL stands for Structured Query Language, and it is a special-purpose programming language used for getting information from and updating databases. Since nearly all businesses run a database system of some kind, SQL is a good skill to have on your resume. It’s also one of the easier tech skills to learn, with numerous tutorials and free resources online (we like this one that lets you learn the language while blowing up spaceships).

If you become an expert, you could be a candidate for jobs like SQL Database ManagerSQL Developer and SQL Analyst—but a lot of general data analyst jobs will also require you to know SQL, as it’s widely used across database applications and web frameworks.

3.     Javascript

Javascript is a scripting language, often used to make web pages interactive. It’s text-based, written in an HTML document and run through a web browser.

There are plenty of jobs out there for JavaScript developers. Anyone looking for a job as a front end web developer (the person who does the coding for the part of the website you actually see, as opposed to the database or servers) will also need to know Javascript, in addition to HTML, CSS and other scripting languages.

4.     C++

C++ is a general-purpose programming language that can be used to create small programs or large applications. In 2013, C++ was CyberCoders’ most in-demand programming language skill, and though it’s dropped to No. 4 on the annual list, don’t count it out just yet.

As an extension of C, one of the oldest coding languages, C++ provides a foundation for many newer, more popular ones. There are plenty of C++ developer job postings, and it’s basically assumed that a candidate for nearly all software engineer or developer jobs will have some experience with the language. Side note: All major Adobe applications are developed in C++.

5.     Python

Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language with an emphasis on code readability. It’s one of the easier programming languages to learn, with its use of common words and expressions, more white space and fewer curly brackets. It is used by NASA and Reddit, and its web framework, Django, powers the Instagram and Pinterest web apps.

There are many job postings looking for Python/Django developers. Companies seeking Full stack developers (developers comfortable working with both back-end and front-end technologies and numerous programming languages) often list Python as a required language for candidates to have in their arsenal.

6.     Pascal Language

Pascal language is mostly a teaching language and few industries uses this language to write the programs. This language tends to use keywords instead of symbols and braces in C language. So, this language is very easy for beginners to understand than a programming language like C, C++. Borland is a compiler software company, which is using Delphi programming language for industrial strength. Delphi is an object-oriented language of Pascal, and presently Borland compilers only use it.

7.     Fortran Language

Fortran language is a number crunching language and still it is used by scientists. This language allows different sizes of variables up to the memory limit in the machine. This language is suitable for engineers, who have to calculate values with high precision. Program in Fortran is inflexible and sometimes it makes difficult to read.

8.     Perl Language

Perl language is a file management language for UNIX. But it is more popular for its common gateway interface programming (CGI). It is a term for programs that web servers can perform to allow additional capabilities of web pages. Pearl language is a method for searching text and it is used for useful server functions and other databases, and it is very easy to pick up the fundamentals if you have any experience in any language. As a CGi language, web hosting services select Perl language over C++ language. Because, the web hosts can review Perl script files. Since they are text files, when C++ is compiled.

9.     PHP Language

The PHP language is used to design web pages and sometimes it is also used as scripting language. This language is designed to develop a rapid website, and as a result comprises features which make it easy generate HTTP headers and link to databases. As a scripting language, it includes a set of components permit the programmer to easily get up to speed. However, it has more sophisticated object-oriented features.

10. LISP Language

LISP language is mostly used in computer science research and it stores all data in lists such as arrays. The syntax of list is very simple and easy to make for developers to implement structures.

11. Scheme Language

The scheme language is an alternate of LISP language, and it has a simpler syntax and features. Any project under the scheme language will result in the re implementation of most of the LISP language. But this is very popular introductory language in the computer science department of MIT’s. This language easily solves the problems instead of worrying about syntaxes of programming language.

This is all about the differences between programming languages and few major programming languages are discussed. And, the remaining languages like Tcl, Python, Smalltalk, COBOL, C# and Prolog are similar to the above languages which are discussed. But selecting the suitable language for developing a program or application is very important

What are the 3 levels of programming languages?

Broadly the computer language can be classified into three categories assembly language, machine language, and high-level language.