CCTV INSTALLATION:-CCTV (closed-circuit television) is a TV system in which signals are not publicly distributed but are monitored, primarily for surveillance and security purposes.
Closed-circuit television(CCTV INSTALLATION), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
Closed circuit television (CCTV Installation) records images of people in certain public places including town centers, roads, airports, and on public transport. CCTV images can be used as evidence in court. You can request CCTV recordings of yourself.
Different Types of CCTV cameras and Specifications
CCTVs are an indispensable part of our lives in the modern era. Whether it is your home or office, these surveillance devices are of great help while you are away. Probably they are the best way to keep an eye on your property in live or recorded formats. However, many customers are unaware of the Different Types of CCTV cameras that are available. These types suit various situations besides different premises. Thus, it becomes important to choose the correct type for the correct usage. Read till the end to know more about these vigilance devices and their types.
Know about the CCTV camera types and specifications that you can avail
If you wonder how to choose the ideal camera amongst the various models available, you should know about the broad divisions of categories. The surveillance devices can be classified into nine types. They are dome, bullet, C-mount, PTZ pan tilt, Day/night, Infrared, IP, Wireless, and HD. Know about each type in detail below.
The dome cameras are named such for their case in which the camera is placed. The greatest advantage of this CCTV is that no one understands the direction the camera points for their dome structure.
- Easy to install
- Ideal for indoor and outdoor
- Resistant to vandal
- 360 rotations cover every angle
- Shops and restaurants
- Hotels and homes
- Cash counters
The design of these surveillance devices is such that it is visible from a distance. Generally, they are found to be cylindrical shaped and efficient in capturing long distances. Bullets are ideal for outdoors since they can endure heat, dust, dirt, and water.
- Resistant to all types of weather and environment
- Visible from long distanced and it acts as a deterrent
- Able to capture a view from a long distance
- The sturdy casing protects the camera from all attacks
- Industrial usages
- Property management and farmlands
- Any outdoor application
C-Mount is an advanced model of bullet CCTV. They are ideal for people who want to capture adaptable views. The surveillance gadget has detachable lenses that you can switch for monitoring different distances. Unlike the bullet models, they are bulky and thus easily visible from a distance acting as a deterrent to criminals.
- Can capture distance beyond 40 feet with alterable lenses
- Properly visible to all from long distances
- The sturdy casing safeguards the camera from the odd environment
- Ideal for outdoor usages
- Widely popular in logistics industries
- Food and manufacturing industries also prefer them
- Any place with odd temperatures and fluctuations
PTZ Pan-tilt CCTV
The pan-tilt or zoom camera helps you monitor and have full control of everything recorded. You can turn the camera to the left or the right using a button. Even zoom in and out, tilt up or down. These devices perfectly fit your needs when you have security personal monitoring live on the field.
- Close focus on subject through optical zoom
- Tilt and pan mode to get a 360-degree view
- Recognition of facial features since the resolution is high
- Personalized live viewing
- Ideal for remote viewing
- Best for business premises
- Great for museums
- Entry and exit gates of high-security zones
The specialty of day/night cameras is that they can record clear images irrespective of the light in their nearby environment. They are specially built for effective operation in obscure light conditions. There are extra sensitive imaging chips that make this possible.
- Low light recording yet clear capture
- Both color and black and white recording
- Functions effectively irrespective of sunlight, reflections, or glare
- Tough casing for better camera protection
- Business premises with 24 x 7 recording
- Any outdoor monitoring at any place
As the name suggests, this CCTV is induced with infrared technology to capture videos. The camera works perfectly in any pitch black condition. However, infrared cameras are expensive as they can record in the dark. People or companies with vital requirements for night recording can opt for this model.
- Crystal clear recording in dark and black surroundings
- Equipped with an infrared cut filter that captures videos in the daytime, even in very light conditions
- Repellent to dust, fog, and smoke, this perfect capturing images always
- Captures color images for day and black and white for night
- The best option for recordings during the night
- Ideal for banks, manufacturing units, farms
- Any high-security place that requires night recording
Also known as network cameras, these vigilance devices can share live footage. The live capturing can be accessed across any place around the globe through the internet. However, the bandwidth of the footage remains compressed to make the online version reliable. The archived videos can be reserved on NVRs for viewing them at a later time.
- Recording can be obtained from any place across the globe
- Footage can be archived
- Straightforward installation since no computer station or coaxial cable is required.
- Requires very little maintenance
- Business sites whose owners are away from the site
- Residential surveillance while outstation as footage can be accessed from smartphone, PC or Laptop.
Wireless models stay very neat and do not require much time to be installed. The appearance of the camera becomes much didn’t, and you can fix it at any location. You can get various Wireless CCTV camera types for your home and office.
- Fast installation when compared with other CCTV
- Tidy appearance with very less fittings
- You can view captured footage anywhere as images are transmitted over the internet
- Easy to access archived footage and store them
- Security room, presentation halls
- Well-furnished places
- Any place that requires a tidy look
As the name suggests, it has a very clear picture resolution, which remains unparalleled compared with others.
- Perfect and precise picture capturing
- No compromise on clarity even when zoomed
- You can get HD cameras on models of bullet and done
- Easy to identify people in the footage
- Places prone to theft
- High-security zones
The principal elements of a CCTV Installation system are:
- Mountings and covers.
- Communication media such as cables.
- Power supply and power cables.
- Switching and synchronizers.
- Video cassette recorders.
- Video motion detectors.
Video cameras do not “see” things in the same way that the human eye sees. The human eye adjusts to various focal lengths and light conditions automatically and usually faster than can be noticed. Video cameras cannot do so. They are limited to fixed fields of view, focal lengths and light sensitivities. Any applications of video cameras must be made with these facts in mind. In fact, in designing a system, it is best to go to the job site with a camera in hand to verify that the cameras actually pick up the desired images and fields of view.
Cameras currently come in four basic varieties. They are as follows:
- Vidicon cameras.
- SIT (silicon intensified target) cameras.
- CCD (charged coupled device) cameras.
- MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) cameras.
Vidicon cameras used to be the most commonly used type. They are relatively inexpensive and are well suited to most indoor uses. With normal indoor lighting, vidicon tubes provide an acceptable quality of signal. They are available in ⅔-in. and 1-in. formats to accommodate higher and lower levels of indoor light. (The format defines the size of the photosensitive area of the pickup device.) The larger format sensors have greater sensitivity and resolution. The vidicon is susceptible to damage from very bright lights and therefore cannot be used in outdoor locations.
SIT cameras are suitable for areas with light levels varying from low levels to bright sunlight. They are often used for outdoor parking lots, underground parking garages and similar areas. For special applications with extremely low levels of lighting, an intensified version of the SIT cameras, called the ISIT, is available.
SIT cameras respond much better to blue light than they do to a yellowish tint. This means that they will work well in areas with mercury or metal-halide lighting but will not work nearly as well in areas with high-pressure sodium lighting. (They should not be considered at all for areas with low-pressure sodium lighting, which is purely yellow.)
CCD cameras are an entirely solid-state type of camera. They are now the most popular type because their prices have dropped dramatically in the past few years. They have excellent operating characteristics. (They are now so good that they are sometimes used for TV studio work.) These cameras exhibit no geometric distortion, no lag and no image retention.
MOS cameras are also solid-state devices, and come in only the ½-in. format. MOS cameras do not do not perform quite as well as the CCD cameras, but they were often used in the past because they are less expensive than CCDs.
Solid-state cameras are quite durable, being able to cope with vibrations and even magnetic fields with very little difficulty.
Video lenses come in ½-in., ⅔-in., and 1-in. sizes to match video cameras. However, it is possible to use a lens that is larger than the format of the camera. In other words, you can use a 1-in. lens on a ⅔-in. camera. You cannot, however, use a ⅔-in. lens on a 1-in. camera.
The most important factor in choosing lenses is that they must be matched to the area you are trying to monitor. The proper focal length (the distance at which the camera is properly focused) and field of view must be coordinated to get the desired results.
Table 1 shows the calculations required for determining several key dimensions for ½-in. and ⅔-in. lenses.
It is recommended that all lenses be equipped with an automatic iris, except for those on vidicon cameras (which are used in indoor locations with a more or less constant light level). The iris controls the amount of light entering the camera. This keeps the light level reaching the sensor within acceptable limits. Sensing automatically brings the signal up or down to the proper level.
Most auto-iris lenses include a spot filter, which increases the range of light levels to which the camera will respond. This is usually mandatory for outdoor cameras due to the wide range of light conditions encountered.
It should go without saying that surveillance cameras should be firmly mounted. In addition to standard wall-mounting brackets, cameras may also be mounted in vandal-resistant cases, which are recommended in trouble-prone areas. Mountings are also available with built-in panning and tilting mechanisms. Obviously, these will cost a bit more than the standard mountings but will provide an additional benefit. However, they cannot be used in all installations, particularly not with video motion detector devices.
Outdoor cameras must (obviously) be protected from the elements. Many types of outdoor housings exist, primarily designed to shield the camera from rain, wind and direct sunlight.
In outdoor locations, however, wind and rain are not the only hazards. Vandalism is also a serious issue. To counteract this, a number of specialty housings have been developed, usually designated as “vandal-proof.”
6 Basic Steps to Follow on CCTV Installation
CCTV Installation can sometimes be difficult and complicated though you can either hire a professional to help you or just do it by yourself. Having in mind that people have different kits and applications, with these simple and easy to follow basic CCTV installation guide, it will guide you through the confusing steps while connecting up you’re wiring.
It’s essential to note that, if your IP address has POE (power over Ethernet) then there is no need to supply power to your cameras. However, for those having analogue and HD-SDO system, it’s necessary to have a power supply for all your cameras
Here are the basic 6 easy step to follow when installing a CCTV;
Step 1: Choose camera location
First, consider the required field of view but avoid pointing your CCTV cameras directly to sources of light such as bright doorways, lightings and windows. Too much light affects the quality of image though sufficient lighting is essential. Therefore, right spots for your cameras and DVR is the most essential aspect when it comes to installing a CCTV camera-system. it help maximize your camera coverage as it also minimize cable length.
Things to consider;
– For indoors CCTV installation, the most suitable place is a corner in the room in which most entry points into your rooms are visible.
– For outdoors, a higher spot that’s covering the door and windows approaches are the most suitable location.
– Power sockets should be in close proximity.
– Each chosen spots should be above 10ft to avoid being knocked down easily.
Step 2: Run Cables
Make sure that in each camera location, you have run one of the supplied pre-terminated cables that is, between the location of the camera and the control equipment (DVR) location.
Things to consider;
– The male power plug should be located at the camera side.
– The power-socket should be located at the control equipment side.
– Thereafter, for each camera’s video-out socket, connect them to a video-input socket that is on the DVR through the black BNC lead on the supplied cables.
To manage your cables;
– You should plan a pathway for all your cables starting from the cameras to the DVR unit.
– To keep your wire or cables safe and well managed, use wire moldings.
– You should nail the moldings just along the path. In addition, put the Siamese surveillance-wire inside to help manage the cables.
Step 3: Power Cameras
It is essential to know that both the DVR as well as the cameras are all powered by a single power supply. Therefore, for each CCTV camera’s power-input, connect them to the 4/5/8 way power supply-splitter lead on your power supply using the same cable.
Things to consider;
– A camera unit should be placed at the desired place.
– When mounting your cameras; a guide marks should be made for drilling purposes. Drill holes as well as hammer-in the screw moldings to help place your camera firmly.
– For the camera to work, you’ll have to insert the camera’s power cable in a socket.
Step 4: Power DVR
Just connect your DVR to the power supply-input which is on the DVR. After it’s done, you can then connect the power supply for DVR, monitor and camera to the main power supply.
Things to consider;
– All CCTV recording are stored inside a DVR thus it’s vital to keep your DVR inside a safe and locked compartment such that if
an intruder happens to spot it then they will be unable to destroy the recorded videos.
– This is the most crucial step when it comes to CCTV installation, it ensure a secured security system for your office or home.
– It’s important to safe-guard your CCTV’s DVR since it’s the place where your surveillance hard disk is stored.
Step 5: Connect your Monitor to the DVR
You can use a BNC-BNC, Scart lead or even a VGA lead to connect your monitor to the DVR. However, for those using a TFT monitor, it’s important to refer to your manufacturers’ connection instructions.
Things to consider;
To connect your monitor to the DVR, you’ll have to use a video cable to connect through a BNC port. However, when connecting your BNC port, There are certain things you should consider. First, you’ll have to;
– Remove an outer covering of your video cable of about 1.5 cm to expose the braids.
– Slide the crimping barrel towards the cable as its wider diameter facing the cable’s end. Thereafter, you should remove the
white insulator that’s covering the innermost cable.
– Insert the exposed cables into your BNC port as you screw the crimping barrel to ensure a secure connection.
– You can then connect your DVR-output port to the screen or monitor to video feed.
Step 6: Program your DVR
This is the final stage when a CCTV installation. Based on the instruction manual, continue with programming your DVR. Some manual may ask for hard drive installation while some have it already done and you’ll be ready to-go. Often, you’ll find instructions on the DVR available on the CD or the booklet provided after purchase.
Things to consider;
– Before you start programming your DVR, you have to first, power on your cameras which will then be followed by the display and
lastly the DVR.
– Setup your DVR based on the provided user manual with the DVR.
– To confirm if each camera is properly working and it’s providing the required viewing angle, it’s important to go over on
each and every camera’s feed.
If you follow these easy and simple 6 steps explained above, then installing a CCTV can be an easy task for you. No need to
hire a professional. These steps are explained in details with things you should consider as you setup your CCTV. However, it’s essential to safeguard your DVR at all times since its where all the footage or videos are stored.
In addition, a right spot or location and sufficient lighting for your CCTV’s cameras is essential, this is to ensure high quality images is produced. A DVR should be stored in a safe, secure and locked place to avoid cases of intruders damaging the videos. Therefore, after installation your CCTV camera successfully, you can consider your office or home a safe haven since everything is capture and who wants to be caught? It’s essential to purchase a quality CCTV unit to help capture high quality images as well.